R B Duncan Press

Scientific Letter
A Forum for Independent Voices
Thur-Sun, January, 15-18, 2004

(R B Duncan Press homepage)

Why we have quantum numbers - animation
by Gabriel LaFrenière

(Reprinted with permission)

Gabriel LaFrenière

absolu2000@hotmail.com

Quebec

 

Balmer series : I hit the Jackpot.

I made a computer program about the laser beam (same as the pinhole camera), as usual using Huygens' Principle. My goal was to make a diagram only, but I also found a stunning phase rotation. So I had to make an animated GIF. Here it is:

Balmer animation showing n (quantum numbers).

Most opticians know very well that the laser beam and the pinhole camera both produce the same light beam, and that such a beam contains "black holes".

They are rather described as "black dots". They are very easily observable. Just make a 1/4" hole in the center of any opaque sheet. Then throw a distant (50 feet or more) laser beam on the hole.

You will distinctly see many black dots in the center of the beam beyond the sheet, according to a progressive sequence of n=1, n=2, n=3...

Balmer type black holes showing n (quantum numbers).

And now, compare with the Balmer series, which you sure are aware of:

Balmer spectrum showing n (quantum numbers).



The "black dot" phenomenon (zero amplitude) on the right is the last one. For longer distances one obtains a normal Airy disk, i.e. a central bright disk. Note that this strongly suggests that the Balmer series for the hydrogen could be caused by a similar phenomenon.

Electrons could respect such distances from the nucleus. Moreover,the phase is opposite on the opposite side, so it needs the opposite electron. This is consistent with Pauli's exclusion Principle.

This is only a diagram for the laser beam. However, I think that a quark contains two electrons and/or positrons, and I am quite sure that the plane standing waves between two electrons should be gluonic fields. Then they should produce an equivalent result:

glafreniere.com/images/mecanique06a.

So a gluonic field is a micro-laser producing a null radiation for discrete distances in accordance with the Balmer series, hence quantum effects.



Pursuant to my investigations for possible "Balmer black holes", I made a new animation for the laser beam, from n = 1 to n = 3 according to: Distance = Diam2/(8*n*lambda). The result is a laser beam scan while approaching the emitter: Anybody can easily observe this. Just make a 1/4" hole in the middle of any opaque sheet and throw a distant (50 feet or more) laser beam on it. CAUTION: never put your eyes in the field of a laser. You could become blind.

glafreniere.com/imagebalmer01.gif.



Note that those black holes are much larger then the atom's nucleus. They could contain thousands of electrons, but it is impossible because they would repel each other. The laser beam angle is wider while its diameter is smaller. A gluonic field could produce a 10° beam or more. Who knows?


To Milo, Geoffrey, Robert (Zeus), Caroline and others:

PLEASE examine the following sequence: d2 / (n * 8 * lambda). Any integer 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. works as "n", except for "zero".

The goal is to find the relationship with the Balmer series.

Both up and down electrons around the hydrogen's molecule (two cores) should respect such distances and oscillate like a pendulum (or maybe Huygens' pendulum)while emitting light.

Oscillations back and forth means polarization. Circles means no polarization.


The diagram shows the amplitude, and the energy is the square of the amplitude. Surprisingly, the energy level is four times higher for the external electron layer then for the second one. This means that the energy INCREASES according to the square of the distance up to Diam2 / 2.44 lambda, then it decreases. This can be explained. See the transverse diagrams: the light is more intense near the diagram centers for n = 1:

glafreniere.com/images/airybalmergif

The upper right diagram is for n = 1, left is for n = 3. They show a sort of "black hole" which would attract any free electron in the neighbourhood. The lower diagrams are for n = 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5, showing a "white dot" instead of a "black dot". The electron would oscillate a different way a pendulum does. This is important: the frequency and the quanta should vary according to the energy level, not the distance.

There is almost no energy loss for the laser beam up to Diam2 / 2.44 lambda. This means that 1/8" red laser can transmit about 80% of its energy to 25 feet inside a constant 1/8" beam. The square of the distance law is decidedly astounding.

This explains very well the spectral emissions, the Zeeman effect and the quantum properties of the light. Note that a pendulum frequency is lower in accordance with the square of the distance.

I could check that myself, but I will be very busy writing a new page on the atom. Now I am quite sure that the electrons do not rotate around the atom's nucleus. They are simply static. Niels Bohr made a mistake. The correct description was Ernest Rutherford and J.J. Thompson's famous "plum pudding".

To Zeus,

A unique hydrogen atom is half of a magnet. So it should match with another hydrogen atom which electron spin is opposite. This is a chemical bonding, and it should work for any atom containig an unpaired electron on its external layer. This means that Pauli's Exclusion Principle also works for molecules.

For the same reason, a helium atom is neutral while it contains two opposite electrons (both spin up and spin down). So, it should be a full but instable magnet while both electrons are spin up (or spin down). Note that there are huge magnetic fields inside the Sun's dark spots. While attempting to convert hydrogen into helium, the fusion process cannot avoid making this mistake one time out of two. The same problem could occur for the two protons.

To all,

This post is important to me. I would like to see most of you members examine it carefully, because we are discovering matter. Otherwise I will do all the job alone, but I will have to live as long as my father does (he will be 103 this year, born in 1901) in order to put all this together.

All members should also remember Zeus' (Robert Byron Duncan) original post. There is indeed a relationship between the quarks (via the gluonic field and a "resonance binding") and the electron position and spin.

Some sub-harmonics, i.e. "beats" between two different frequencies are also possible.


Here is my home page

glafreniere.Home Page

Gabriel.

4 Decades of writings of Daniel P. Fitzpatrick Jr.

and here's this above page duplicated in Adobe.pdf:

http://www.amperefitz.com/4.decades.pdf

 

 Fitzpatrick's website is at http://www.amperefitz.com



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