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We have shown that magnetic phenomena can be expressed in terms of relative motion. . Now we are ready to take a look at this thing called gravity. . We are going to analyze it in the same light as we did with the magnet and electric current.
At the risk of repetition we again go to our great instructors Galileo and Albert Einstein who taught us that all motion is relative. . If this is so then why can't we think of ourselves and the earth in the same sense as electrons traveling in the same direction on parallel paths? . We, this includes people , cars, chairs, tables, stones and anything else not fastened down, are certainly going through space with the earth. . Consequently we must be traveling on a parallel path with the earth.
We also must be going in the same direction with it.
What does our Law of Relative Motion tell us about objects that are traveling on parallel paths and going in the same direction?
Our law says these objects will attract.
Is this what happens between us and the earth?
It certainly seems so.
Some readers have probably proffered the question to which we now turn our attention. . If gravity is the attraction obtained by our moving on a parallel path and in the same direction as the earth why then is the earth also attracted to the sun when we are definitely not going on a parallel path with it?
The answer is this:
We are traveling on a parallel path with the sun when someone takes the entire solar system into view.
If we could imagine an enormous giant looking at us and using our Law of Relative Motion, he would say that not only does the earth attract the people on it because they are moving on parallel paths and in the same direction, but since the planets are all moving together in the solar system and that system itself is moving through space, then all the units of that system will be attracted together. . This giant will also look at our galaxy and say the reason that the various solar systems in it seem to be attracted to the other solar systems that may exist is because our solar system must be moving through space in unison with the stars and other solar systems as seen from yet a larger system.
At this point it might be well to revise certain fundamental points. . The reason that the earth is attracted to the sun is because the earth and the sun are traveling on parallel paths, as everything in the solar system moves together through space. . From the sun's point of view, since we are not traveling exactly in the same direction as the sun and since we said we would only have gravitational attraction when we are traveling along with something, therefore, the earth, by using our"Law of Relative Motion" should expect to be repelled from the sun somewhat because our speed would be a bit higher than the sun's speed.
We must remember that our new law does completely away with gravitational attraction unless the objects are traveling together.
Compared to the sun, the earth is going at a terrific rate of speed. . The "Law of Relative Motion" would say that both the earth and sun should repel each other,
Our friend, the giant, would expect to see the distances between the earth and sun contract because our solar system and all the units in it, which of course would include the earth and sun, would be traveling through the universe together.
What actually happens is that the earth moves on a geodesic, which is the happy medium of both the giant's view and the sun's view.
Einstein said the orbits of bodies were geodesics; now we can actually visualize them using our "Law of Relative Motion".
We notice, as we look at Saturn with its rings, that a distinct tendency exists in our universe to make orbiting satellites stay in one particular plane. . This is not only noticeable with the planet Saturn with its rings, but with Jupiter and its moons as well. . The same effect is apparent in our solar system as a whole.
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto are all in the same plane orbiting our sun.
Our galaxy and even other galaxies as far as we can see, seem to exhibit this same tendency that the objects they are composed of all stay in the same plane.
This, indeed, is one of the postulates of the Law of Relative Motion which tells us that all orbiting objects will stay in the same plane.
Some of us may ask at this point the following question:
If orbiting bodies seem to group in the same plane throughout the universe and if the "Law of Relative Motion" does not distinguish between pieces of matter and sub-atomic particles, why aren't all atoms and molecules made up of groups of electrons all orbiting in the same plane?
The answer to this question is that the electrons do orbit in the same plane to some extent and we would see more of this tendency if there were less molecules and electrons per unit area, that is if the density of the molecules and electrons in matter was less than it is at present. . The high speed electron along with his densely populated neighbors, continue to create new geodesics in which all electrons in turn must move.
Light and heat upset this further.
All the electrons in matter are kept in constant agitation regardless of whether they are orbiting around a nucleus or not.
Even if the electrons are free electrons consisting of a static charge on the plate of a capacitor or a rubber or amber object, these electrons seemingly free to stop, with nothing to rotate around, still cannot halt their incessant speed.
It is this constant speed that all of these electrons are constantly being kept in and the inactivity of the nucleus compared to this speed that gives the illusion of positive and negative charges.
As we observe several molecules we must keep in mind that the electrons around the molecules are moving in a myriad of directions and precessing as they go. . It is no wonder then that the two molecules will tend to repel each other. . Each time one of the outer orbiting electrons finds a new geodesic which is caused by a neighboring electron revolving around its atom, then this revolving electron will tend to move the entire molecule, that it is revolving around, to a different spot.
The electrons then that revolve around the molecules are centering devices that constantly shift the entire molecule each time it nears a geodesic caused by a neighboring electron. . The result is that molecules will be spread out uniformly throughout matter.
An analogy can be made to that resembling a multitude of spiders placed on a large flat surface: . Each spider will move in any direction as long as he feels another spider or the tentacles of another spider, otherwise he stops. . We can eventually expect to end up with a uniform distribution of spiders over our flat surface. . The same thing is true with the distribution of molecules in matter. . This is also true with the distribution of all objects throughout our entire universe, whether they be large or small.
The distribution factors of light and heat and other electrons do not, however, keep all of the electrons from forming planes. . there are some electrons that do not succthrough throughumb to the above disturbing factors and continue to spin and revolve in the same plane as their orbiting neighbors.
If another nearby molecule has electrons that are also spinning and revolving predominantly in one or several planes, then there will exist ways in which these molecules can link together.
These electrons that thwart all the disturbances and remain in predominant planes are bonding agents that hold matter together, and by their various assortment of planes in different angles, are one of the things that give us the various types of assortment of properties that we observe in matter.
There are two types of electricity, one that has a steady flow in one direction, and is called direct current. . This is the type we referred to earlier in the book. . Now we are going to observe alternating current.
This type of electricity is commercially more readily used because it can be transformed from one voltage to another through a device known as a transformer. . Alternating currents along with this transformer action is what we will consider next.
As we look at two things namely the transformer and alternating current and as we observe them in the light of our "Law of Relative Motion", we will obtain the answer that men over the centuries have asked.
What is light?
We will not only have the answer to this but we will also see why light seems to be both a wave and a particle.
We will also see why energy of both radio and light waves, as well as X rays is increased as the frequency of the wave is increased.
As you look at Figure 5. you will see two greatly magnified views of two conductors.
Ordinarily at frequencies such as commercial power frequencies of sixty cycles per second, these wires will be wound around a soft iron core and at frequencies of hundreds of thousands of cycles per second and millions of cycles per second a ferrite core can be used to obtain a maximum transfer of power from the primary (top conductor in our Figure 5.) to the secondary (bottom conductor in the same figure).
Since we will not be concerned with the efficiency of the device, we will eliminate the core. . Now we are going to suddenly start electrons flowing through the top conductor.
We are going to observe what happens in the bottom conductor at the precise instant that the electrons start to flow in the top conductor.
In the bottom conductor, since there has been no influence of any electron motion in the top conductor until just this instant, the orbits and spins of the electrons in the bottom conductor will be in various haphazard positions.
We are going to concern ourselves with two of these electrons; one of them is orbiting and perhaps spinning clockwise with A' X' as a section of its orbit and perhaps a section of its spin surface as well.
Another electron is orbiting with A X as a section of its orbit and spin.
At the instant electrons start flowing in the top conductor the electron at C will attract the electron in the bottom conductor when it is moving through point D, because our Law of Relative Motion says that objects moving on parallel paths in the same direction will attract.
The electron at C will also repel an electron in the bottom conductor when it is moving in an opposite direction. . This will be a point directly across the orbit from D. . We must remember, however, that since these forces strengthen as the objects get closer together; the stronger force will be obtained when the electron is at D, because C and D are the closest points these electrons come to each other.
This attraction will pull the whole orbit/spin of the electron in the bottom conductor in the direction shown.
Every time the electron A X as it spins & revolves in its orbit, we will have the same effect that we had in our generator, namely that the electron or a portion of the electron's real speed through path A X will be faster than before because of the addition of the speed of the entire orbit in the same direction that the electron travels through points A X.
At this point its mass increases or the brakes are applied, whichever way you prefer to look at it; with the resultant motion of the electron through the conductor as shown.
Our other spinning/orbiting electron does essentially the same thing.
The electron C' in the top conductor will repel the electron in the bottom conductor when it is at D' because our new law tells us that particles moving in opposite directions will repel. . We notice the same resistance offered at A' X' along with less resistance or drag offered when the electron is directly opposite in its orbit from section A' X'. . The resultant motion of the orbit is shown.
Since all of the electrons in the conductor can be considered to be rotating/revolving clockwise or counter clockwise to a certain extent, then we will have a current flow through the bottom conductor that will be opposite to the current which is flowing in the top conductor.
This current flow in the bottom conductor will be very brief, however, because as soon as both the orbits of the electrons in the bottom conductor in Figure 5 reach the walls of the conductor, then the whole process has to stop even though current continues to flow in the top conductor.
If we now reverse the flow of current in the top conductor, we would get another brief flow of current in the opposite direction in the bottom conductor.
Also we see this current will be flowing on the walls of the conductor. . This very thing has been noticed, especially in the higher frequency end of the radio spectrum and has been called "Skin Effect". . Coils used at these frequencies are even silver plated to provide a lower resistance to the electrons that travel jammed against the conductor's walls at these higher frequencies.
In Figure 4.. where we had produced an electron flow by moving a conductor, or wire, across the face of a magnet, we find that the voltage (speed/pressure of electron travel through the wire) is directly proportional to the speed that we move the conductor past the magnet.
In fact it is thought that the voltage produced in this way is even more than proportional to the speed of the moving conductor and it may lie on a relativity curve with the voltage becoming infinite as the speed of the conductor across the face of the magnet reaches the speed of light.
Because we cannot move a conductor at any speed that even approaches this, we cannot check this for certain
The orbiting electrons in the bottom conductor in Figure 5. produce a higher voltage the faster they are attracted or repelled to the conductor walls and as the case might be, if they could be instantaneously attracted or repelled to the conductor walls, the voltage produced in the bottom conductor might be infinite.
We notice that the faster we change the direction of the electron flow or current in the top conductor, the more abrupt the orbits of the electelecronsrons in the bottom conductor are pushed or pulled against the conductor walls. . This causes a higher instantaneous voltage to be induced in the secondary or bottom conductor. . We notice as we go on increasing the frequency of the change in direction of the current in the top conductor from sixty changes per second that the power company supplies us with, to a frequency change of several thousand times a second, we find thet we can move the bottom conductor quite a distance from the top conductor and still acquire a voltage transfer through the conductors.
What is now happening is that the top conductor is becoming a transmitting antenna and the bottom antenna is becoming a receiving antenna for receiving radio waves.
We are now going into the radio frequency spectrum.
As we go higher in frequency we find that we can even move our two conductors even further apart, but at frequencies of one hundred million cycles per second we have produced a dilemma for ourselves. . We find that even though the speed of the electrons in our bottom or receiving conductor is increasing, the total number of the electrons (amperage) is decreasing furthermore these electrons, that are not moving as fast as our high voltage electrons, are causing a drag to our high speed/voltage electrons. . Special coaxial cables help us conduct these voltages here, and with the aid of these special cables we try and increase our frequency to several thousand, million cycles per second. . Here even our cables fail us and we have to revert to a rectangular metal tube called a wave guide in order to prevent the few high speed, or high voltage electrons from being dragged down in speed by their slower neighbors.
Above these frequencies nature has bested man. She has endowed us with an instrument that can detect the electrons, that although they may be few in number, such as either one or several electrons that shift orbits in an atom.
When the retina of the eye detects this voltage it does so in a very similar manner to the way in which a voltage was produced in the bottom conductor in Figure 5.
The electron that has just shifted orbits being the same as the top conductor and the retina of our eye being the bottom conductor. . The sensitive current that our eye would detect in this manner is what physicists have labeled the photon, not understanding what a light wave really was. . Now we see why light was thought to be both a wave and a particle. . It is really neither.
The first thought that comes to our mind now with this new understanding of light is to re-examine the results of the Michaelson-Morley Experiment inorder to find out more about our universe. . We will do just this and we will find that the world owes even a greater debt than we had realized to Lorentz, Fitzgerald and Einstein.
The answer that things contract in the direction of their movement, and that light has a velocity that is independent of the velocity of the source and the velocity of the observer, gives us a key that enables us to unlock the mystery of space and time.
Keeping in mind Einstein's rule that the velocity of light has to remain constant regardless of how fast the body emitting or receiving the light is moving, we now see the constancy of the speed of light is the very thing that explains why things on parallel paths, going in the same direction, attract and things going in opposite directions repel.
We found that light, radio waves and alternating current are caused by the same basic action between moving electrons. . The only difference between light, radio waves and alternating current is the frequency at which this change takes place. . Since all of these actions must occur at the speed of light, we can now say that not only is the speed of light a constant but the speed of all of this type of attraction and repulsion must remain a constant.
The speed of this sort of attraction and repulsion is a speed that is independent of the speed of the source and the speed of the observer.
This constancy of not only the speed of light, but rather the constancy of all action at a distance is the key that we have been looking for.
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