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Since space is relativistic and not Euclidean, then the motions of all the components of our universe, as seen by us on earth, considering the earth at rest, will be seen by us on earth as separate motions.
An analogy may be made to the skin of an onion that is made up of many separate layers, each layer being a distinctly different layer than the one under it. . As each item moves in respect to the earth, this item must contract from our point of view here on earth. . This we were taught by Lorentz, Fitzgerald and Einstein. . Now! . How does this affect the constancy of light, or rather the constancy of action, at a distance between us on earth and these other moving objects?
We already have shown how time, as seen by these moving objects, is not the same as the time we are measuring here on earth.
This we previously saw was the reason for the Red Shift and apparent illusion that far away objects are receding from us. . But what else occurs that contracts relative to the earth, or what happens to our constancy of action at a distance when we see both an electron moving about an orbit here on earth and an object in space moving in respect of us? . Both of these objects must be experiencing a contraction in respect to us, the observer. . Now, if both of them are experiencing a contraction as seen by us, how can we still have a constancy of action, between the electron that is contracting and the object in space that is also contracting?
We can have only one answer and the answer must be this: The electron that is orbiting must be attracted (viewed by us here on earth) to the object that is moving relative to us here on earth.
The effect of all the electrons in matter, going in all directions, and being attracted (from our point of view) to other objects in the universe is the effect that we call inertia.
The reason will be seen quite a bit clearer as we study the gyroscope and pendulum, , The gyroscope and the pendulum along with vibrating objects offer us a special type of effect called gyroscopic inertia.
As we observe a gyroscope spinning, we see that the portions of the gyroscope that are on the rapidly spinning wheel must be contracted relative to the observer on earth because it is moving in respect to the earth. . The constancy of action at a distance then will tend to make the rim of the wheel attracted to objects in space.
Objects in space that are traveling in the same direction as the rim of the gyroscope will cause a greater attraction to the gyroscopes rim than other objects. . There will be objects in space that will be moving in directions opposite to the direction that the gyroscope's rim is moving and our Law of Relative Motion would show us that these should repel. . This repelling action is caused by the constancy of action at a distance the same as the attraction is increased by the same constant speed of action.
One very important thing happens here, however.
Because we are going to be higher up on the relativity curve when we calculate the attraction (the mass is going to increase at an ever increasing proportion in regard to the increase in speed of the object), the attraction of portions of the gyroscope's rim as they move on parallel orbits and in the same direction with other objects in the universe is going to be greater than the repelling action which portions of the gyroscope's rim will undergo when it is in parallel with other objects in the universe which are going in an opposite direction to the rim.
In other words, this constancy of action will make the gyroscope's rim attracted to objects that lie in the same plane as the rim of the gyroscope, this attraction increasing as the speed of the gyroscope is increased.
As we tilt the gyroscope, we will notice that we are now making a new plane - in the sky of fixed stars - to which portions of the gyroscope's rim will be attracted.
This new plane will depend on the speed of the gyroscope wheel and the speed by which we tilt the wheel.
The spinning wheel will try to move into this same plane and this is our precession that we observe in the gyroscope and other gyroscopic instruments,
To summarize this: Gyroscopic inertia is caused by the rim of the spinning gyroscope being pulled by every star and planet in our universe.
Since all matter is made up of electrons which are essentially in themselves small gyroscopes, then all of these gyroscopes, all wanting to precess in different directions, give us this quality of matter we call inertia.
If mass is the measurement of the inertia of matter, then if we could make electrons move on lower orbits, (closer to the nucleus) we would have less inertia because each electron now would have less of a gyroscopic effect because of its smaller orbit.
This is exactly what happens when we receive energy in the form of light from an atom.
Niels Bohr has shown us that when light energy is given off by an atom, then the electron responsible for this effect has moved from a higher to a lower orbit.
Now we have a picture of how mass can be turned into energy.
We have a much better idea now of what the formula E=MC2 means. . Another way of stating this fact is that the electrons are giving matter a slight bit of inertia or mass by their revolving around the nucleus.
If such an electron were to lose some of its speed by imparting some of this speed to an electron in our eye (sending out light), then it could not continue on its orbit and it would fall to a smaller orbit, then it would impart less gyroscopic action, hence less inertia, hence less mass to the atom of which it was composed.
Mass and energy then can be seen to be essentially the same thing.
There is much more to be learned about the universe, but if we know that the speed of light, or should we say the speed of action at a distance, must remain a constant, then we have a key to probe all motion in our world.
Our universe must present quite a different picture to us, as we look out than it would to someone who might be exceedingly larger than us and who could look in on us. . The way such a being would visualize us would be the same way that we observe a piece of matter. . He would see things in a more or less steady state even though certain elements of the system seemed to be rotating and revolving around. . We view a piece of matter in much the same way. . We see a substance in a more or less steady state even though we know it is composed of rotating and revolving electrons.
Physicists will have to take another look at the way in which we measure the mass of the various components of the atom.
The Law of Relative Motion will now give us a much clearer picture of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity
If we take a sphere that is made out of any type of material, which is composed of many orbiting electrons and we move this sphere through space at a fixed speed of 10% of the speed of light, then as it approaches another object we find the electrons in our sphere have a tendency to shift the electrons being passed just as the electrons in the primary conductor in Figure 5 caused the electrons in the secondary conductor to shift. . Since we are going to keep the forward speed of this sphere the same, we would notice a drag similar to the drag on the armature of a generator. . In fact, we would have made sort of a generator because we would have caused an electric current to flow in the object that the sphere had just passed
Keeping the sphere at a fixed speed of 10% of the speed of light, when this drag is noticed, means that we will have to increase the force we are applying to move the sphere. . As we apply this force, we will say that the mass of our sphere has been increased because it is now taking more force to keep it at the same speed.
Now, our sphere is composed of great quantities of electrons all rotating in various orbits. . As our sphere passes an object and induces an electric current in it, the forward speed of the sphere has not slowed down but the orbiting electrons in the sphere have their speed slowed down because they have just imparted some of their speed into the electrons in the object they have just passed
Now electrons in orbit can be considered sort of a clock; so we can say if they are slowed down then the time of the sphere is going slower also.
As these electrons go slower, then they must drop to a lower orbit.
If many of them do this then they must contract in size.
This is exactly as Einstein's general theory of relativity shows it to be.
As the velocity of light is approached mass increases, time goes slower and the object contracts
In the earlier paragraph as the sphere moved past the object and the drag was felt, we could also maintain that the mass of the sphere had not increased but the sphere had been accelerated.
We can consider that it had been accelerated even though it remained at the same velocity because both Newton and Einstein have shown us that gravity is a form of acceleration.
If the sphere, that we are moving at this fixed rate of speed, passes an object extremely larger than itself, then each electron in our sphere will have to impart some of its speed to a great many electrons in the extremely large object. . This distribution affects each electron in the large object only slightly. . Therefore the mass increase, the contraction, the slowing down in time will be more noticeable in our sphere than in the large object.
The same effect: that of each portion of the small sphere being affected greatly compared to the same size portion of the large object, is the reason the large object will consider itself less affected and more inert. . The larger this object becomes, compared to the other objects in its vicinity, the more inert it will tend to regard itself, and the more it will feel it is at rest compared to the other smaller objects that may be near it.
This is the reason that man, accustomed to viewing small objects moving in regard to this huge earth, has always searched for an ultimate place of rest in the universe.
Observing our universe as an open ended, steady state universe, we see that the quest for the smallest particle in nature will be an unrewarding quest.
Space, in this relativistic universe, is unbounded as we get smaller just as it is unbounded just as we get larger. . Therefore there can be no smallest particle. . In fact, we may have another paradox. . What do the terms larger and smaller actually mean?
Another thought that should be conveyed before we conclude is this: If we could become small enough, we would see that an electron would view the atoms nearby in much the same manner as we view the stars and galaxies thst encircle us.
On the other hand, the way we view the electron's world would be similar to the way in which some super giant would envisage us along with our solar system and our galaxy.
Therefore by using our knowledge that the forces existing in the microcosm are obtained in the same way as those in the macrocosm, we can substitute one world for the other when we wish to change our perspective from how the universe appears to man, to how the universe appears to another object that is larger or smaller than man.
The law that we have studied in this book is the Law of Relative Motion, and we must constantly keep in mind that as we change our perspective, or rather get the other object's viewpoint, we must always use Mach's principle and measure the movement of an object against the inert mass of its surroundings.
If, in other words, two objects move on parallel paths in the same direction through surroundings that have a greater mass than before then these same two objects will have a greater attraction.
In conclusion we have found that we have pieced together some more of the dinosaur's bones and we have a better idea of the structure of the creature.
Mathematicians now can concentrate their energies on not just probabilities, but now they can build using certain factual truths which will last as long as man himself and will never again need changing.
Einstein was thoroughly convinced that man would one day find the answer to the way in which the universe functioned. . Proclaiming this one day he said, "Der lieber Gott würfelt nicht." . This is a German colloquialism that loses its meaning when translated word for word, but what Einstein essentially meant was this: The good God had a plan. He didn't just throw dice around.
Fate, however, prevented Einstein from ever witnessing that plan.
Einstein said that we would someday find the answer.
Heisenberg and Bohr said that this answer would forever remain uncertain.
It seems to me that Einstein's logic has won.
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