R B Duncan Press

Scientific Letter
A Forum for Independent Voices
January, 2004 Edition

(R B Duncan Press homepage)

Understanding the binding energy curve and E=MC2
by Daniel P. Fitzpatrick Jr.

(Reprinted with permission)

 

First we have to look at Iron, Nickel and Cobalt. What is the relation between these three elements being magnetic and also right together at the peak of the binding energy curve?

Secondly we must ask why does a change in mass give us energy? - OR - Why do we have Einstein's formula E=MC2?



The answer is this:

Atomic elements have two binding choices: Bind together with other atoms and atomic elements or bind with the fixed stars.

Any CHANGE of this binding - in either direction - is energy.

Iron is at the peak of the energy curve because its atomic elements bind equally to the fixed stars as they do with each other.

Cobalt and nickel are also close to Iron in this equal binding spot.

Therefore it does not take too much additional energy to swing the spins of certain electrons in the d and f shells of iron to change its magnetic polarity.


Heavier elements to the right of iron on the binding energy curve have more binding with their respective constituents than they have to the fixed stars.

The lighter elements to the left of Iron have more binding to the fixed stars than they have with their respective components.

Therefore you can remove some of the binding with the fixed stars and transfer it to their individual components and get fusion energy.

By the same token you can remove some of the excess binding of the individual components of the heavier elements to the right of iron and give it back to the fixed stars and get energy.

Any binding change in either direction is also associated with a certain amount of energy.



Now you will get the answer as to why this is so and why E=MC2.

It's pretty simple really.

It's in the vector forces caused by angular momentum.

Oh yes, angular momentum gives us a vector force.

Ampere showed us that.



The spinning electron creates a powerful attractive and repelling force in the direction of its spin axis and this attractive force "locks on".

Well, the spinning quark does essentially the same thing but only to other quarks in the fixed stars

You must remember too that these attractive binding forces that "lock on" do not obey the inverse square law. . Each individual quark binding force to the fixed stars stays the same no matter the distance.

You will get tired of hearing me say this: Only the number of these binding events falls off with the square of the distance.


Want to know what MASS really is? MASS is nothing more than the down quarks in neutrons binding with other neutron down quarks in the fixed stars.



Incidentally while we are on the subject of quarks, the two up quarks in a proton (up does not signify spin up in an up quark) are spinning spin up-spin down at a higher frequency than the electron but at a harmonic of the electron's frequency and they are responsible for binding with a spin up and a spin down electron



I'm afraid there is no such thing as positive and negative charge, folks. . It's all frequencies and waves.

Back to our story

As I said, it's simple really.

Quarks binding with other quarks give you inertial mass.

And any change to this binding is energy.


All of this is pointed out in my Theory Of Everything book.

Also in my Theory Of Everything book is the fact that you cannot take the deBroglie wavelength formula out of the microcosm and apply it to items in the macrocosm where exactly the reverse is true

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