Dr. Sol Eisenberg's analysis gives a steady-state universe
Tony Bermanseder and I believe that the CMBR (Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation) was caused by Beta Decay when an all neutron universe converted to the neutron-proton-electron constructed universe we now have. I, myself, believe any expansion is now over.
Dr. Sol Eisenberg also believes we are NOT in an expanding universe.
Here is what he says:
I hope this will help to clarify the meaning of the important work of Perlmutter.
The work of Saul Perlmutter and others is cited to show that the expansion of the universe is apparently accelerating and thus introduced the need for dark energy.
Cosmology depends upon observations to suggest theories and even more important, used to validate theories.
The support for the expansion of the universe is based upon the determination of distance of standard stars by the relative light energy received from these stars.
However, the distances are also determined from the measured red shifts and the Hubble constant. Initially Hubble determined the distances of red shift stars by measurements using nearby calibrated stars. The Hubble constant together with observed red shifts is used to calculate distances for stars that are much further away, by assuming that the linear relationship is also valid for very remote stars.
Because some of the very remote stars are more faint than expected from the red shift data it was suggested that these remote stars are further away than expected from the red shift data.
Thus it was explained that these remote stars are moving faster than expected (an acceleration of the expansion) and thus introduces the need for dark energy to power the acceleration.
However, the errors in the conclusions are caused by not understanding that there are THREE other contributions to the red shift that depend upon gravity in addition to the Doppler shift contribution. One gravity contribution is a function of the log of distance, is linear for shorter distances, but shows the non-linear component at very large distances where the apparent acceleration of the supposed expansion appears.
One of these contributions also depends upon distance including gravitational drag.
Hubble measured red shifts as a function of measured distances. But Hubble himself initially used the term "apparent velocity" in connection with the red shift.
Our analysis also determined that one gravitational contribution to the red shift causes errors in determination of the distance of massive quasars (making them appear further away) thus giving a very large value for calculated emitted energy. This also results is a transverse (proper motion) of massive quasars that are unacceptably larger than the velocity of light.
Once the red shift is understood the support for the expanding universe, the accelerating expansion, and the big bang are removed.
Details are provided at my web site:
Sol Aisenberg, Ph.D.
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